Established Methods

This section features a range of established thermoregulation strategies for building facades that already exist in our built environment. Largely non-biomimetic in nature, these familiar strategies have been compiled based on their use of low to high technology. 

Permeable Facades


Termitary House 

Location: Vietnam

Architect: Vo Trong Nghia

Status: Built

Technology level: Low 


The building is constructed like a lattice screen; with brick crossed and fastened together with square spaces left between which allows for air to flow in and out of the house via cross ventilation creating a natural air conditioning mechanism. 

Keywords: brick facade/lattice screen/naturally ventilated/natural lighting/ perforated brick walls


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TermitaryHouse_credit Hiroyuki Oki2

Photo by Hiroyuki Oki

Evaporative Cooling


CoolANT Facade

Location: India

Architect: Ant Studio

Status: Built

Technology level: Low 


The terracotta clay pots were designed with the inspiration of the structure of beehives, the large surface area maximizes the cooling effect all while being sustainable. The water running on the surface of the cylinders cools the hot air that passes through the clay pots.

Keywords: plug-in facades/ terracotta/ porous/ Hygroscopic/symmetrical geometry 


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CoolANT_credt Ant Studio

Photo by Ant Studio

Passive ventilation


Caledonia Cultural Centre

Location: Caledonia

Architect: Renzo Piano

Status: Built

Technology level: Medium


Comprised of rounded, airy shells emanating high-rise ventilation – a solar chimney (a passive cooling system that can be used to regulate the temperature of a building as well as provide ventilation). The interrelated clustered buildings are inspired by the layout of the traditional Kanak villages. 

Keywords: porous structure/ solar chimney/ high rise ventilation/ rounded airy shells / kanak inspired 


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Caledonia Cultural Centre_by Flickr Saturnino

Photo by Flickr/Saturnino

Sun tracking


The Esplanade 

Location: Singapore

Architect: DP Architects + Michael Winford & Partners

Status: Built

Technology level: Medium


The roof is covered with panels that are fixed in a grid structure based on the sun’s path, they reflect the sun’s rays and retain heat during the day, allowing thermal comfort. The rooms are made of reinforced concrete for acoustic insulation 



panels/ sun orientation/ aluminum panels/ grid structure/ thermal comfort 


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 Photo by DP Architects.



The ARC at Green School

Location: Bali, Indonesia

Architect: IBUKU

Status: Built

Technology level: Medium


An intersecting bamboo design constructed from anticlastic (having opposite curvatures at the same plane) grid shells. The structure is composed of a series of porously connect- ed pavilion-like enclosures, which overlap to allow sunlight and provide shading for the occupants.

Keywords: orientation/ shading/ tensioned anticlastic grid shells/ shape stiffness/ state of equilibrium 


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The ARC Bali

Photo by Tommaso Riva

Double skin façade



Location: Singapore  

Architect: WOHA

Status: Built

Technology level: Medium


The Oasia Hotel’s porous aluminium mesh cover allows the integration of biodiversity within the facade and creates a “green skin.” The openings allow for ventilation, keeping guests cool inside 

Keywords: trellis skin/Cross Ventilation/ greenery/ natural light/aluminum mesh cladding 


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Photo by Patrick Bingham-Hall

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